Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in 1641 in Cologne. These negotiations were initially blocked by Cardinal Richelieu of France, who insisted on the involvement of all his allies, whether entirely sovereign countries or states within the Holy Roman Empire. [5] [Page required] In Hamburg and Lonbeck, Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg with the intervention of Richelieus. [6] The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden stated that the preparations for Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg were preparing a comprehensive peace agreement. The question of whether the 1648 peace agreement can serve as a model for conflict resolution in the Middle East is a highly controversial issue among historians, de Graaf said – even now, two years after the Convention of Historians in Hamburg, when the then Foreign Minister, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, animated this debate in a high-profile speech. In 1648 or 1815, De Graaf does not consider it a sufficiently appropriate plan and stresses that the essential conditions that existed at the time are not met today, such as the collective conviction to collectively end poverty and misery, the idea that this can only be done collectively, by relocating national interests and building – very importantly – on the common idea at least of the illusion of a Christian society. According to historians, the peace of Westphalia had its drawbacks 370 years ago. “While the successful diplomatic negotiations between Osnabruck and Munster brought the Europeans the peace they had long awaited, the newly pacified states turned their attention to the outside world, expanded their empires and founded new colonies. Its global historical dimensions are long neglected by historians,” says Dutch historian Beatrice de Graaf of the University of Utrecht, ahead of the 52nd Congress of Historians in Munster, which will discuss the new historical assessments of the Westphalia peace of 1648.

“The peace agreement has gradually created a collective European culture and security policy that has made attacks by the continent`s neighbours less likely, but which have also allowed for expansion outside Europe. Beatrice de Graaf and the historian renate Derr organize the “Peace in Westphalia 1648/2018” panel during the Convention to “bridge the gap between European, imperial and world history” on the peace of Westphalia. The body will also discuss whether the peace of Westphalia can serve as a model for today`s peace processes in the Middle East. At the 2016 Congress of Historians in Hamburg, then-Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier launched a debate on the issue. At the time and today, religion must be taken seriously as a factor, as it has played and still plays a central role in conflict resolution. “Until the 1970s, it was thought that new wars were conducted only on the basis of ideologies or the use of resources.